A CNC router uses computer software and electronics to cut any material that is sitting beneath it. You may use a CNC router for wood cutting, working around the house and more. A CNC router machine allows you to create the perfect accuracy when cutting any material that you need. The router is created with many different components that help it to work properly. There are other options for components to use in your machine, as well as different additions that you can add to it.
However, these are the most basic components that come in almost every CNC router:
The CNC Controller and Computer System
The CNC controller and the computer system are what tells the motors in the machine which direction they need to cut and the length in which needs to be cut, as well. Of course, you will need to create the design on the computer system yourself, but this design will be transmitted to the CNC controller to make the perfect cut that you need.
If you ever run into problems with the CNC controller not relaying the right design that you have created on the computer, then you may need to replace it.
The Spindle: The spindle is what does all of the cutting. You will want to choose a router with a spindle that has enough power to cut whatever material you will be cutting on a regular basis. For example, if you are cutting wood, then you will probably want a spindle that has more power than you would if you were just cutting softer materials, such as fabrics, or foam.
You will notice right away if the spindle has broken because it will not cut into the material as efficiently as it did when you first purchased it. The spindle can easily be replaced and you can even switch out spindles whenever you need one with more or less power depending on what you are cutting.
The Cutting Bed: The cutting bed is what holds the material being cut in place. Although there are different styles of cutting beds to choose from, you will usually want one that holds materials down with bolts and clamps since this tends to be more secure.
Other cutting beds can be limited to what materials they can secure, but they may be best for you depending on what materials you will be cutting. For example, if you are cutting the same design on a regular basis, then you can use a cutting bed that is called "the vacuum table," which is efficient enough to cut many materials except for wood and sheet metal.
Knowing how these different components help to make the machine work, you will be able to identify problems, know what components may need to be replaced, and more.